Section 2
Developing and Storyboarding an MTS Lesson

In Lewis Carroll’s story of Alice in Wonderland, Alice comes upon the Cheshire Cat after falling down the rabbit’s hole. Being lost, she asks the cat which way she should go. “That depends up where you want to go,” responds the cat. Alice says, “It really doesn’t matter.” To which the cat replies, “Then it really doesn’t matter which way you go.”

DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE STATEMENTS
As with Alice, you must first determine where you want to go before you can develop a plan for getting there. This means that you must first create Performance Statements for your lesson. Performance statements are statements that define what people will know or be able to do as a result of going through a MTS lesson. Using performance statement, you will be able to develop both Performance Objectives and Test Questions. Below are listed several examples of performance statements.

Examples of Performance Statements:

List two major types of safety hazards.
Identify the rocker-bearing joint.
Locate the emergency shut off switch on the T-100 packing machine control panel.
Calculate the curing time for FG1 gel when the temperature is 240 degrees.
Name the three steps for effective listening.
Performance statements require the learner to do a specific something when presented with a learning task or event.

Examples:

List two major types of safety hazards.
Identify the rocker-bearing joint.
Locate the emergency shut off switch on the T-100 packing machine control panel.
Calculate the curing time for FG1 gel when the temperature is 240 degrees.
Name the three steps for effective listening.
Be careful of statements that use phrases such as know about understand and other vague statements. These types of phrases are much too general in nature and should not be used to develop precise performance statements.

DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
Performance objectives are statements that define what a person will know or be able to do once they have completed an MTS lesson. To create a performance objective, add the phrase "Trainees will be able to…” before the performance statement.

Examples of Performance Statements:

Learners will be able to list two major types of safety hazards.
Learners will be able to identify the rocker-bearing joint.
Learners will be able to locate the emergency shut off switch on the T-100 packing machine control panel.
Learners will be able to calculate the curing time for FG1 gel when the temperature is 240 degrees.
Learners will be able to name the three steps for effective listening.
You may also use these statements in a slightly altered form at the beginning of the lesson to define to the learning what he or she will be expected to know or be able to do as a result of taking the MTS lesson

Example:

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

List two major types of safety hazards.
Identify the rocker-bearing joint.
Locate the emergency shut off switch on the T-100 packing machine control panel.
Calculate the curing time for FG1 gel when the temperature is 240 degrees.
Name the three steps for effective listening.
When you list the performance objectives at the beginning of a lesson, you help the learner to mentally prepare for learning. Let’s face it, no one likes to be surprised when they are trying to learn something that is important to their job or career. Forewarned is forearmed.

For more information concerning the construction and use of performance objectives go to the Internet and use the key words Bloom’s Taxonomy to search the web.

Examples:

http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/program/hndouts/bloom.html
http://faculty.washington.edu/krumme/guides/bloom.html

DEVELOPING TEST QUESTIONS
At this point, you are in the home stretch because you have already developed you test questions. They are the performance statements you developed earlier.

Example:

List two major types of safety hazards.
Identify the rocker-bearing joint.
Locate the emergency shut off switch on the T-100 packing machine control panel.
Calculate the curing time for FG1 gel when the temperature is 240 degrees.
Name the three steps for effective listening.
Performance statements in the form of Performance Objectives and Test Questions serve to integrate your instructional efforts into a unified whole. They may be thought of as the “anchors” at either end of any instructional treatment. An instructional treatment is the presentation of information used by a learner to successfully answer a test question. Instructional treatments may consist of text, graphics, diagrams, pictures, video, sounds, voice, or musical recordings.

To help you construct performance objectives, remove and duplicate the form Performance Statements, found in the Forms section of this guide. As a rule of thumb, a MTS lesson should contain between 12 and 20 performance objectives. If you have more than 20 objectives, you should consider developing two or more lessons. Keep in mind that MTS programs tend to compress both information and learning. Be careful to never overload your learners with more information than they can comfortably handle at any one time.

For more information on developing test questions consider:
Developing Test Questions

DESIGNING INSTRUCTIONAL SEQUENCES
For every performance objective/test question, there must be an instructional treatment or treatments which prepare the learner to respond correctly and thereby achieve the stated performance objective. To respond correctly, you, as the instructional developer, must ask yourself, “What does the learner need to know or be able to do to answer a particular question correctly?” The simplest sequence is to provide a screen with text or graphic information, followed by a test screen.

Note: Ask only one question per test screen.

More often than not, you will need several screens to present the information needed by a learner to successfully answer a test question.

A good rule of thumb is to present only one concept or major idea per screen.

FEEDBACK
When a learner enters an answer in response to a test screen, he or she needs immediate feedback concerning the answer. If they answered correctly, they need to be told that they have successfully answered the question (reinforcement). On the other hand, if their answer is incorrect, they need to be told that it was incorrect and at that time routed through a remediation process so they can answer the question successfully the next time it is presented.

The simplest form of remedial branching in an MTS lesson is to route the learner back through the instructional treatments that proceeded the question that was answered incorrectly.

An alternative approach is to create a remedial branch or “mini-lesson” which presents the required information in a different way. We have all encountered a learning situation in which we had trouble learning something in a traditional way. It was only later, when a friend or another teacher explained it to us in a different way that we were able to learn and understand.

MASTER FLOWCHART
A Master Flowchart is a map of all the screens to be included in a lesson. Because the master flowchart is an overview of the lesson, each screen must be given a reference number that correlates to a storyboard page. You will find a Master Flowchart form that may be duplicated in the Forms section. Below is an example of a Master Flowchart for a short lesson.

THE STORYBOARD PAGE
In the back of this guide you will find a form entitled Storyboard Page. You may remove this page and duplicate it as desired.

The storyboard page is divided into the five areas listed below:

Area 1: Represents the monitor screen. This area shows how the screen will look to the trainee. All information (both text and graphics) which will appear on the screen is indicated.

Area 2: This space is for special instructions. Special instructions can include background color, color of text, comments about animation, audio or video segments, screen resolution desired or other information that describes how you want the screen to look or perform.

Area 3: This space is used to indicate which screen is to appear next. It also indicates those screens with test questions that respond to right and wrong responses.

Area 4: This area is used to write the voice script used by a narrator.

Area 5: This area is used to identify the name of the production and the number used to designate the screen.

For more information about storyboarding, you may want to consult:
http://www.InterneTraining.com/6art3.htm



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